A number of Allied plans for the invasion of mainland Europe were considered but never came to fruition for various reasons. Plans to invade Norway under Operation Ajax, and later Jupiter, were strongly supported by Churchill as being of tactical importance, however almost all other leading British military figures considered them pointless. A number of plans focussed on the northern French port cities, from which invasion forces could start and hold an attack, but were scrapped because of lack of resources. Operation Bolero involved the build-up of American troops and airmen for use in future Normandy port invasion plans of Sledgehammer and Round-up. After these fell through, Bolero was also cancelled due to US troop requirements elsewhere. Operation Rankin incorporated three different contingency plans based on the status of the German war effort. A, B and C would each aim to occupy mainland Europe if Germany lost military strength, withdrew from occupied countries or surrendered respectively.
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