Conflict over Kashmir 1949–1971


Map Code: Ax01213

The 1947 partition of the Indian subcontinent was along religious lines, creating tensions within Kashmir, which had a Hindu ruler, but a majority Muslim population. After Kashmir ceded to India, Pakistan sent in soldiers. After a temporary ceasefire in 1949, nearly two-thirds of Kashmir was retained by India and the line of demarcation, later known as the Line of Control, became a source of bitter border disputes. Pakistan and India fought three wars over the border between 1949–71. In 1965, the Indian army marched into Lahore, crushing a Pakistani plan to blow up a bridge used for Indian-Kashmir military operations. The Indians routed Pakistani forces in the Amritsar-Lahore axis and gained 360 sq. km (140 sq. miles) of Pakistani territory. In 1971, regional tensions again erupted, with Indian-supported insurgencies (leading to Bangladeshi independence from Pakistan) in Pakistan and Kashmir, prompting thwarted Pakistani attacks on Jammu and Kashmir.

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