In 1720 the Habsburgs dominated Central Europe. The Treaty of The Hague (1720), which followed the defeat of the ambitious Philip V of Spain by the Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and the Dutch Republic (Netherlands), consolidated the Habsburg position. Philip was forced to end his claims to lands within Italy and lost numerous territories, including large areas of Italy and the Spanish Netherlands, which were transferred to Charles VI of Austria, who also held the crown of Holy Roman Emperor. The vast area of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which had been weakened by the Great Northern War, internal disputes and anarchy, dominated the lands further to the east. The personal union of Poland with Saxony was confirmed in 1699. Saxon reforms, of both the Polish government and army, served to marginalize the Commonwealth, which became an increasingly passive player on the European stage.
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