Simultaneous operations against Axis ground, air and sea forces in Tunisia in April and May 1943 served to tighten the stranglehold on the remaining German forces, who had been pushed eastwards towards the sea. German air transport capabilities were targeted and severely hindered under Operation Flax, whilst an Allied naval blockade was enforced under Operation Retribution. These efforts to starve out the German forces trapped in Tunisia were highly effective and made large scale evacuation attempts impossible. Ground forces made their final push towards the coast in Operation Vulcan from the end of April but made slow progress against well-prepared German defensive positions. With the British drive towards Tunis and the American drive towards Bizerte capturing both cities on 6 May, final pockets of German resistance held out in the surrounding area for a further week. The final German surrender came on 13 May with a total of 240,000 Axis troops laying down their weapons.
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