The Battle of Brandywine, in Pennsylvania, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on 11 September 1777. Washington mobilized his defensive forces in Chadd’s Ford, with the area’s high ground and dense woodland offering concealment. He posted troops at the main fords, making the tactical assumption that this is where the advancing British army’s two columns would cross. On 11 September, in receipt of intelligence about Washington’s defensive position, the British army’s two columns split, with General Knyphausen crossing Chadd’s Ford and General Cornwallis sending his troops towards Birmingham, over Osborne’s Hill. Washington was forced to redirect his army’s right flank to Birmingham, where they were defeated by Cornwallis. Meanwhile, Knypehausen captured most of the American artillery at Chadd’s Ford. Washington, facing pressure on two fronts, was compelled to retreat.
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