After the closing of Falaise Pocket on 22 August and resultant death or surrender of around 60,000 German troops, the last German stronghold within Allied lines was enveloped. The Allies were now free to march northeast to clear the coastal ports which were under orders not to surrender because they were vital for Allied shipping and the resupply of advancing soldiers and vehicles. Paris was liberated on 25 August with the assistance of French Resistance forces and civilians who attacked their German occupiers, ultimately ending in General Chollitz surrendering the city against Hitler’s orders. The push east of Paris was achieved with minimal resistance from the Germans who were now hastily retreating and by 29 August the Americans had retaken Reims. In some areas the advance was only slowed down by logistical issues as river-crossing equipment could not be brought to the front quickly enough.