The ‘Miracle of the Marne’ marked the end of German hopes of a quick victory in 1914, the second battle there in 1918 would lead inexorably to their defeat. As a final fling of the Blücher-Yorck offensive, the Germans had mounted attacks either side of Reims. Blocked to the east, the western line of attack managed to cross and form a beachhead on the southern banks of the Marne. At this point, Marshal Foch, the new Allied Supreme Commander, launched a massive counteroffensive, comprising 22 French and 10 American divisions, and sizeable contingents of British, Italian and other Allied troops. Supported by 350 tanks, the attack began on 18 July and by 27 July the Germans had been forced back to Fere-en-Tardenois. Then the Franco-British 10th Army renewed the attack. By early August, virtually all the territory gained by the German army in its spring offensive had been recaptured.