Independence

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Showing 1–12 of 18 results

  • Africa c. 1947

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    After World War II, the UN issued a declaration that all people had the right to self-governance and in 1945 created an agency to supervise the decolonization of dependent territories, some of which had been ceded by Italy after its defeat in World War II. In 1947, these territories were... More
  • Decolonization 1950–97

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    A frequent catalyst for independence movements is the disruption to colonial rule occasioned by protracted conflict. The Napoleonic War was effectively the death-knell for the bulk of Spain’s South American empire; World War I completed Ottoman disintegration. Although France and Britain emerged on the winning side in World War II,... More
  • Decolonization 1951–75

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    Following World War II, people across Europe and Africa began to question the morality of the European colonies created during the scramble for Africa in the latter 19th century. It had become increasingly obvious that the colonies were exploitative in nature. The Atlantic Charter, signed by the Allies in 1941,... More
  • Formation of Yugoslavia 1918–20

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    Representatives of the southern Slavs had conferred in exile about the creation of a united post-World War I kingdom. As the Austro-Hungarian Empire fell apart, they convened a national council in Zagreb in 1918, but differences of view rapidly emerged. Both Croatia-Slavonia and Montenegro hankered after independence, fearing domination by... More
  • Hispanic America c. 1800

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    The Bourbon dynasty in Spain tried, like the British Government of the time, to recoup some of the costs of its various military entanglements by rendering its colonies more profitable. The promotion of free trade made the colonies more self-sufficient, but the introduction of royal monopolies and increased taxes were... More
  • Indochina War 1946–64

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    On 22 August 1945 the Japanese across French Indochina announced an informal surrender. They assisted the Viet Minh nationalist group in taking over the administration and handed over their weapons before the French could bring in reinforcements. The Viet Minh then declared independence from France on 2 September 1945, shortly... More
  • Latin America 1892

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    Following the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, Latin America remained highly unstable, with a succession of Caudillos, military strongmen, seizing power and waging war. Some of these wars were brutal: Paraguay lost up to half its population in conflict with Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina (1864–70); Bolivia lost its access to... More
  • Liberation Wars 1948–87

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    Post-colonial Africa was divided into 54 countries with a myriad different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic groups. It is widely believed that this has led to decades of coups, border conflicts, violent insurrection and war and organized guerrilla activity throughout Africa. Internecine conflict has created many displaced persons on the... More
  • Post Colonial Wars 1948–89

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    After achieving independence, many African states experienced various forms of armed conflict, which served to hold back economic and social development across the continent. The legacy of the old colonial borders is believed to have played an important role in this widespread conflict as they were drawn by the European... More
  • The Algerian War of Independence 1954–62

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    Algeria was classified as part of the French state, with (from 1947) French citizenship available to all of its subjects. Suppression of non-violent political movements seeking independence led to the formation of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) which, emboldened by French defeat in Indochina, launched Toussaint Rouge, a coordinated... More
  • The New Turkey 1926

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    The Treaty of Sèvres (1920) ceded Ottoman territory in Arab Asia and North Africa to the Allies; in 1923, the Turkish War of Independence finally saw off the Allied occupation. Armenia was made independent and Kurdistan (Kars) declared autonomous. The Ankara Agreement replaced this treaty in 1921, when France ceded... More
  • Partition of India

    The Partition of India 1947

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    In the words of India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, "At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom." Upon independence on 15 August 1947, when the British left the subcontinent after 300 years of colonial rule, India was partitioned into... More
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