The site of Troy, near the Dardanelles Straits in northwestern Turkey, was first extensively excavated by Heinrich von Schliemann (1870–90). He was guided by earlier speculation that it might house the remains of the famous city of antiquity laid siege to by the Mycenaean Greeks, and immortalized by Homer. The phases each represent a rebuilding of the city, after earlier settlement has been destroyed, usually by fire or earthquake. Troy I-V appears to have cultural continuity, with the open-porched hall, or megaron, the standard dwelling place. Prosperity peaked in Troy II; Schliemann found spectacular gold jewellery associated with this period. Troy VI belongs to a new culture, and is built on a grander scale, some 660 ft (200 m) in diameter, more than twice that of earlier settlements. Its massive limestone walls were topped with brick ramparts and watchtowers, imposing houses are laid out in concentric terraces.
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PeriodEarly Civilizations [4000BCE - 500BCE]
RegionEurope, Middle East