The Reach of Rome c. 1100


Map Code: Ax02115

The Great Schism of 1054, a dispute between Rome and Constantinople over who held jurisdiction over the Church in Sicily, permanently divided Christianity between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. By 1100 Roman Catholicism reached into most of western and central Europe, with the Pope acting as the centralized ecclesiastical authority. Yet there was tension between Church and State over who had the authority to elect archbishops, bishops and abbots. This led to the 11th- and 12th-century Investiture Controversy, where a succession of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies to appoint Church officials. The controversy began when Pope Gregory VII clashed with the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV, who ruled territories in Germany and Italy. Holy Roman Emperors, as well as European monarchs, believed that they, like the Pope, were divinely chosen and had the right to political control over Church domains. The crisis was resolved in in 1122, with investiture shared between Church and State. Monarchs were to invest bishops with secular authority (‘by the lance’), while the pope invested bishops with sacred authority (‘by ring and staff’).

Want a discount? Become a member by purchasing Personal Subscription – Annually
All of our downloadable maps are provided as JPEG at 300 DPI and a minimum of 1500px wide.
  • Different Formats

    Different Formats

  • Different Formats

    Request Variations

  • Institution Subscriptions

    Institution Subscriptions