The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad’s (NH) predecessor was the Hartford and New Haven Railroad (H&NH), which operated from 1844–72. The H&HN offered services in New England from New Haven, Connecticut, to Springfield, Massachusetts. The NH was formed after merging the H&NH with the New York and New Haven Railroad, which ran along the Long Island south coast and crossed several large rivers, requiring the construction of railway bridges. The NH rapidly dominated the region and leased several tracks. This dominance became a Boston to New York transport monopoly when major investor, J.P Morgan, acquired 50 further companies in the 1890s, including railroads, electrified trolley lines and steamship lines. By 1912, the NH had 120,000 employees and 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track. The monopoly collapsed in 1935 and restructured, reducing its lines. It went bankrupt for a second time in 1961 and, in 1969, became part of the Penn Central System.
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