Kublai Khan (r. 1260–94), the fifth Khan of the Mongol Empire, made himself Emperor of China and, in 1271, renamed the Mongol occupied northern territories, ‘the Empire of the Qa’an and Yuan’, despite not fully conquering the region until 1279. His empire was isolated from the other khanates, which paid him nominal allegiance as the Great Qa’an (Great Khan). After the first Khan civil war in the 1260s, the Berke- Hülegü war (fought in the Caucasus between Berke Khan of the Golden Horde and Hülegü Khan of Il-Khans), the Mongol Empire had begun to fragment. There were disputes over succession, including internal disputes, with the many descendants of Genghis Khan, in particular the Chagataids and Jochids, embroiled in their own succession claims and arguing over who should control the different khanates. While there was still a recognition of the suzerainty of the Qa’an and Yuan Empire, this was not formalized until 1304.
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