Europe in 1453

The French victory at Castillon (1453) ended the Hundred Years’ War, leaving the defeated English with just the port of Calais as a toehold on the European mainland. In the same year, the long... Read More

Europe in 2000

The map of Europe remained unchanged, but 1989 was a year of revolutions, sweeping away Communist rule in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. Later, borders would change, with... Read More

Europe in 1900

Prussian military victories over Austria (1866) and France (1871) reshaped the map of central Europe, spurring the formation of Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867), and the conversion of the German... Read More

Europe in 1800

The elective monarchies of central Europe appeared increasingly quaint when set against the ruthless Realpolitik of ‘enlightened’ despots such as Catherine the Great of Russia, and Frederick the... Read More

Central Europe in 1789

In 1789 the Habsburg dynasty ruled the Holy Roman Empire, Austria and approximately a hundred German-speaking states in Central Europe, many of which were still ruled by bishops. The Empire also... Read More

Europe in 1871

The Franco-Prussian war resulted in two reunifications. In the run-up, French troops were withdrawn from Rome and the Papal states enabling completion of the Italian Risorgimento; a crushing Prussian... Read More

Europe in 1789

In 1789 the French Revolution began. Not only did it have profound and lasting effects on the political future of France, it began a series of drastic changes in the systems of power and alliances... Read More

Europe 1700

The turn of the 17th century was sandwiched between the Great Turkish War (1683–97), which effectively ended Ottoman expansion into Europe, and the Great Northern War (1700–21), through which... Read More

Europe 1600

In the late 16th century, elective monarchy appeared an increasingly successful model for governance. In the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth, the enshrinement of the powers of the nobility in the... Read More

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